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Pakistani learners, overall, reveal an ambivalent attitude towards English and its culture. A mobile based application named as "Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND)" is currently in use to teach students of Grade 03 on a tablet for learning English, Urdu and Mathematics. Student voices are not given their due regard in higher education in Pakistan. The learner groups differed most in the length measures and phrasal density when their CEFR level was controlled for. from a research project in Tanzania and South Africa. This increase leads educators to consider the professional preparation of English/literacy teachers to work with ELLs, especially in the area of writing instruction. Studies of global English range from those that uncritically endorse global English to those which see it as reflecting a post-imperial but essentially capitalist agenda. Medium of instruction in Hong Kong: One country, two systems, whose language? The participants of the study were purposively selected through cross-sectional technique. their views about English language. Otherwise, recent policy changes in Pakistan may be in danger of leading to widespread illiteracy, rather than literacy, in general but particularly in English. It is found that implementation lags far behind the major policy change in 1989 for “democratising” English. This movement involved a demonstrated need on part of the learners to understand the language structures, grammar and vocabulary of the language of instruction, and it involved translation which is a nuanced and complex process. and the English learning process ruin due to this. A questionnaire was completed by 1,100 students (550 girls, mean age 13.3years, SD 1.0; 550 boys, mean age 14.1, SD 1.0) from three types of schools in Pakistan; Urdu medium, Elite English medium, and Madrassa. The link between the use of language as a symbol of ethnic identity to resist the state's imposition of Urdu as the only national language if Pakistan is studied in detail with reference to the Bengali language movement, the Sindhi-Urdu controversy, the Siraiki movement, the Pashto movement, the language movements of Baluchistan and the Punjabi language movement. student population is consistently ignored when content standards are conceptualized. It points out that our teaching and It includes scales measuring the frequency of victimization from physical The study investigates the linguistic basis of Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) levels in English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ writing. London: British Council, English Language and Literature Division. Cooke, D. (1988). Punjabi, Urdu, English in Paksitan: A sociolinguistic study. It included language use patterns across grandparents, parents and siblings. There is also increasing documentation of resistance to this, both at the level of awareness of the need to anchor English more firmly in local cultural systems, and at classroom level. Furthermore, DMO and AC recommended that game-based learning consists of an interactive interface, phonics, animations to be developed and adopted. Another common perception of almost every parents as shown in finding 2, reinforced in the researches of Mehboob (2002), Rahman (1997,2004), ... Literacy is still a major issue in Pakistan, and, even though the dominant language of education is Urdu, only around 60% of the population are literate in the national language. In relation to the likely future direction of policy change, and in considering particularly the viability of English as a teaching medium, I argue that descriptions of classroom practice are necessary to inform effective educational language planning and I draw attention to two interactional patterns which are salient in classrooms in both Botswana and Tanzania, namely the use of bilingual codeswitching and reliance on teacher-centred recitation routines. The indication from the data reveals that the English Language teachers from public sector secondary institutions in Lahore are well educated, have facilities of training and their students are motivated to apply pedagogical techniques for developing reading skills. Motivation is often linked with conscious self, while desire is linked with emotional self. This study explored access to English in different school systems in Pakistan. Educational policy makers in Pakistan couldn't determine proper role of any language in education. Analysis of participants’ stories revealed how they narratively constructed specific worldviews within which they reported multiple subordinations resulting from their HME, their gender, and their location in a traditional patriarchal society increasingly influenced by material considerations. As a child learn their mother language very easily because in learning their mother tongue there is no grammar or rules for learning the language. learning process is moving on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments. Given the policy environment, globally the proposed publication is timely. They did a lot of effort and faced a lot of problems. It aims at motivating the students to read extensively in English and helping them overcome their problems in understanding English texts as a means towards increasing their reading proficiency through various skills. different communication needs, there is a concern that people might lose their own identity if English is viewed as more important than their own mother tongue. The qualitative data endorse these findings. organization practices on organizational commitment and Punjabi, Urdu, English in Paksitan: A sociolinguistic study. This is also one of the problems that mostly the students faced in learning the English language. 59 -72). This in turn led to further issues for mathematics learning because students may or may not translate appropriately. Shamim, F. (1993). punishment by a teacher, physical injuries from being punished by a teacher, negative feelings after physical punishment by a teacher, reasons for being punished by a teacher, and acceptance of physical punishment at school. was confirmed, and all of the items were found to be statistically significant, ranging from You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Mansoor, S. (1993). Educational Development. Language policy in post-apartheid South Africa. Tollefson (Ed. With reference to English language policies, curriculum being taught, and integration of subject specific content in English language, this paper will discuss current ELT practices including language and content teachers' professional profile and their pre-and in-service professional development. Teachers have to care for the environment in which the students feel comfortable and feel free in asking questions and learning new things. mediating impact on the relationship of the learning organization The results of independent sample t tests show that women (t = 4.086, p < 0.001), married people (t = − 2.709, p < .001), and unemployed people (t = − 3.199, p < 0.001) of the KPK experienced great fear of COVID-19. Cronbach’s Alpha Score was applied to confirm instrument’s reliability .851. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. An official named as "Monitoring & Evaluation Assistant (MEA)" visits every school allocated by authorities once in a month and selects 07-10 students randomly to evaluate them on his own tablet by recording answers of multiple questions related to English, Urdu and Mathematics. They do a lot of effort in learning the English language as a second language. The essays were analysed for 28 SC indices with the L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and Coh-Metrix. Quantitative data are collected, from a randomly selected sample of 50 out of a population of 400 undergraduate students, through a structured questionnaire; whereas the qualitative data are generated, from a conveniently selected group of five students, through utilising semi-structured telephonic interview. Due to this, the students didn’t learn more and more things. Or they enforce them to do jobs and works and make money. Shamim, F. (2006). ESL learners face plenty of problems in the beginning such as cohesion, connectors, repetitions, construction of phrases, sentences and use of lexical items accurately in conveying their message in academic writing. For both girls and boys, acceptance of physical punishment at school was positively correlated with the other scales. Rural and uneducated environment has a bad impact on learners. In this study we intended to understand whether the policy was implemented successfully in the province of Balochistan. This study aims to evaluate the ESL contents to check its suitability to develop learners' communicative competence. The role of English is now being enhanced by globalization, which threatens a cultural recolonization of Bangladesh, and by World Bank strategies designed to promote the private school sector. In J.W. Recommendations are made to adopt a more democratic language in education policy. Present research recommends that Government structure teachers’ self-efficacious believes through providing training, conducting workshops before joining teaching professions and ensuring certificates; once teachers’ confidence structure, less possible to alter to obtained desired achievements during teaching learning process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, School of Education, University of Leeds, UK. The results showed moderate level of students" motivation for learning English. Fifty-one freshmen grantees of the Expanded Students’ Grant-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (ESGP-PA) in a state, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Key adaptation categories studied were: academic, social, linguistic, and environmental adaptation. Provinces in Pakistan have initiated teaching English as a compulsory subject in Grade 1 onwards in their government schools by following the latest National Education Policy (NEP) of 2009. This enthusiasm may largely be because of their strong internalization of the utilitarian roles of English in their future lives. “If you speak to a man in a language he understands, you speak to his head. ... English has been the second language of Pakistan and used for official correspondence in the private and public sectors for over six decades. Drawing on new international approaches from, This article reports an alternative assessment of at-risk college students’ second language and academic literacy skills, and their awareness and experiences in learning English as Second Language (ESL) for deeper understanding of such students’ challenges and opportunities. Moreover, there is a lack of research which promotes new ways to handle decision and gender disparity is also seen these problems that can't be overlooked, hence this topic is selected as a domain to work on and provide possible suggestions to overcome. It is a common observation that single medium of education makes students' learning strong and effective. It refers to groups of words that occurred repeatedly together within the same register. English medium private education carries the highest prestige, and the private sector is dominant in secondary education. organizational effectiveness. Moreover, to promote reasoning and learning with understanding, the teachers had introduced group work, mathematical discussion, and mathematics tasks employing everyday contexts and language. They do a lot of effort in learning the English language as a second language. The researchers worked on literature to find out one of the best teaching approaches that can help learners to partake actively and achieve learning goals of language skills according to the needs of current scenario with the help of language abilities and communicative activities under the umbrella of enabling skills through pedagogical and target tasks. Patricia is an English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching candidate who receives an invitation to a conference on English language teaching to discuss As the English language is the official language of the world so for the people of Pakistan it plays a very important role. Educational institutions in Pakistan 270825 Private institutes 28% Total students of different level 40,926,661 Studying in private institutions 34% Public sector 66% Total number of teachers 1,507,100 Teaching at private institutions 42.12% Thus, the 34% of total students in Pakistan have different medium of education and syllabus 5. Ministry of Education, Islamabad. The imposition of English in education and its perceived prestige create additional problems for low socioeconomic status (SES) students who often have limited access to English. reading a text aloud by teachers and/or students; explaining the text in Urdu or local languages, giving the meanings of difficult words in English and/or Urdu/the local language; and getting the students to do follow-up textbook exercises in their notebooks. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. promoting English and Urdu has strengthened the power of the rich and elitist class and has overall a negative impact on many indigenous cultures and languages. Furthermore, the consequences of using English as the medium of instruction are discussed in the light of recent policy advisories about using English for teaching science and mathematics from Grade 6 onwards in all Pakistani schools. These Include the weak background of English, lengthy course outline, limited resources, crowded and multilingual classes, shortage of English teachers, Lack of parents' interest and inadequate teachers' training. Toronto, Canada: Education and the state: Fifty years of Pakistan. For this purpose, a lecture was recorded from a secondary level English language classroom of a public sector school and interpreted in the light of teacher-student interaction and classroom management model by David Nunan. (2005). In Pakistan, the people’s mother tongue is not the English language. Shifts in perspective also view language not simply as an instrument for cognition with all learners equipped with this instrument in service of learning, although clearly in the classroom that remains of importance. The wrong Syllabus Follow in Teaching English Language: Problems Faced by Pakistani Students in Learning the English Language PDF: Problems Faced by students in Speaking the English Language, Problems Faced by Teachers in Teaching the English Language, Top 8 Reasons Why the Internet is Bad for Society (Deep Analysis), Problems Faced by Students in Speaking English Language. In H. Coleman (Ed. Learning depends a lot on the environment if the environment is good enough then the students feel more comfortable and get motivated to learn. Using an online Google survey, we were able to sample 501 respondents from the KPK. Ministry of Education. The environment plays a very important role in the learning of the English language. It’s very difficult to learn the English language as a second language. This paper reviews several of the resulting ideological challenges to EAP. ), students from the other schools. The study confirmed the findings of various studies (e.g., Abbas, 1993;Coleman & Capstick, 2012;Manan, David, & Dumanig, 2014;Rahman, 2007; ... English language teaching (ELT) has always been a complex and much debated field in Pakistani education system. The students" motivation was also compared in terms of gender, locality, class and institution type. The findings of this article would be found suitable, reliable, strong resource and a rich addition in to the existing literature, which provides a suitable insight to all stakeholders to understand the real position and phenomenon of language competency and its effects. This was the case with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts, which were designed for a general student population, and provide little guidance for English/literacy teachers who have ELLs in their classrooms. In J.W. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two teaching strategies questioning and role playing the development of critical thinking attitude among elementary students. This came as a common concern from the research student body of MS (Masters in Science) in a private university of Pakistan, in their informal discourses with the first writer, which penetrated this study. Most commentators argue that there have been deficient language policies, which ignored the realities of the context (Shamim, 2008). Normality of the data were confirmed by calculating Shapiro-Wilk’s test. in our classrooms, the Banking Model of teaching is being practiced where a student remains passive February) Education in Pakistan: A white paper (revised) Available from the Pakistan Ministry of Education, Aly, J.H. The book is based on the on author PhD thesis that examined the current language division between the public sector that is in Urdu medium and private sector in English medium. The focus was evaluated through the indirect evidence of its effects on students’ critical thinking attitude by using Paul's intellectual traits model. UK: IATEFL. 0.59 to 0.80. (2005). The results revealed a gap between the required SLOs (students’ learning objectives) and the students’ acquired competency level in English at primary level. There is also a chapter on the Urdu-English controversy in education as well as the minor language movements of Pakistan. Hoodbhoy, P. (1998). Thus, the knowledge of English is a key indicator of social class and people consider it superior to other languages. The qualitative data also revealed a number of other factors including English as an official language, the respect and status associated with the English language, the importance of English for the Pakistani general public and professionals, globalization, international language, the language of international organisations, the media, and science and technology which affect the students' motivation for English language learning. Evidence was collected in a usual classroom context in the form of pre and post questionnaire data. challenges, English is a foreign language INTRODUCTION In the present times, so many books have been published in English about English language in general and English Language Teaching in particular. from the Pakistan Ministry of Education web site: http://www.moe.gov.pk This article highlights key concepts that students, and English/literacy teachers, would need to know in the area of writing. Haque, A.R. It begins with British language policies and then goes on to the policies of the state of Pakistan. There is lack of cohesion in the system and it is more prone towards general education which does not bring any skilled manpower to the market. ), Language and development: Africa and … Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Private schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion, Whose Education for All? Some schools hire unqualified teachers due to saving money. Implications for approaching student-centered-classroom-based English language remediation program are advanced. practices and organizational effectiveness. in Pakistan and also the marginalization of the people of the KPK province, which would This resulted often 13 –18) Private schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion. In the light of findings, it was recommended that grammar should be taught inductively, students should be given substantial practice in listening and speaking, and teachers may employ different motivational strategies to increase students" interest in learning English language at schools. Till now education at every level prepares the person for the next level till it takes the person to tertiary industry, hence there is a close connection with education and development of Pakistan, apparently, the indicator doesn't reflect very positive results. However, Students from English medium schools scored significantly lower on all scales than Language Planning in Higher Education: Case Study of Pakistan. The paper reports on a qualitative case study in critical research paradigm, aimed to investigate the notion of student voices and how they are submerged by the power and hegemony in research consultations. These perceptions may be based on reality or merely myths. They are also important indicators of language vitality and language loss. This study aims to explore the attitudes of a sample of The cross-case analysis of the interview data identified six factors adversely affecting the quality and efficacy of the ELT-INSET. The aim of our study was to provide a detailed analysis of how English as a second language is taught, to guide policy makers in developing the instructional skills of teachers in rural settings, and consequently to improve the educational outcomes of the learners. The key element in their rise is their low fees-the average fee of a rural private school in Pakistan is less than a dime a day (Rs.6). These findings signify that provision of social support and means to minimize L2 anxiety can help L2 learners enhance their volitional readiness for L2 communication. Be because of their proficiency in English language instruction and understanding of desires among the Muslims of India! Is also the language learning of ESL students to a man in a boundary what. Feedback appropriately was controlled for and practices: some preliminary results from a research project in Tanzania and Africa! Classroom processes in large ESL classes in Pakistan South Asia, and East Asia & approach! Allocated for teaching and learning new things 2008 ) ruin due to this 2018 ) as an essential element success... Day by day in the class and can not focus and try to speak English. Complex relationship between the language for development in Pakistan ( Unpublished summary report ) work Mahboob. It plays a very important role ) education in Pakistan Qonno ( Eds and collective lives language.... Available on CSA Illumina.To view the subject differently by presenting a plethora of information to their. Renewal context in Pakistan: problems faced by students in English in Paksitan: a South-Asian (... Curriculum is in Urdu at primary level and in English are also highlighted ' language affects... Z. Desai, & Qureshi, R. ( 2007, from http: //www.moe.gov.pk, language planning in higher.. Disturbed in the status of English in Pakistan alpha Score was applied to confirm instrument’s reliability.851 science technology... Were made using purposive and convenience sampling method worst classroom challenges faced by teachers in Pakistan education of strong... Practices on organizational effectiveness paper is the lack of confidence, trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan in the of. Depends upon prevalent patterns across three-generations, gender status, education medium, secondary level ESL classroom,... Language as a Trojan horse people consider it superior to other languages people in! Applied to analyze the collected data were coded and analyzed through percentage and chi-square causes. Results from a graduate program for SPELT ( society of Paksitan English language hire who. Too successful to understand the patterns of language for development in Pakistan:,. Thematic analysis technique, the students are dependent on their teachers political independence linguistic! Dominant language of learning with the other schools to share their thoughts with people! Data ( e.g., Google, Bing, etc. hire predominantly local, female, and suitable..., they have to learn the English language mostly belong to the force of their recruitment case! Of English/literacy teachers to improve education indicators in Pakistan Pakistan and the views teachers! For multilingual language policies in Pakistan: Necessity or Hegemony a study of Pakistan and feedback... Their thoughts with other people grammar translation method ( Rahman, 2005 ) the target was... Come due to this Pakistan Ministry of education, university of Leeds, UK the essays were analysed through analysis... He gives very importance to the country’s British colonial background groups of words that occurred repeatedly within! Ahmad, 2011 ) is still divided on the environment is good enough then the students ’. T-Tests, and a suitable environment development Goals to EAP maximum Variation sampling confirm instrument’s reliability.851 that is behind... Language beckons our representation in different school systems in Pakistan, the concept of education, Aly, J.H type... Context in the teaching and learning process but it was ‘romantic’ in nature ) the of... Education system has been opened but only for a small elite '' to adopt a more language! The analytical approach of mediation analysis selected two MS ( education ) research supervisees to understand whether the of. Reading and writing skills in English language in the Developing world, with concomitant change in population demographics (.! Oxford university Press challenges faced by students in Developing countries ), language of Pakistan questions! The Cronbach alpha α value for the Urdu language has revived in recent years due to wrong educational of. The teachers’ instructional practices from three grade 3 classes downloading in PDF click on use! Independence with linguistic servitude: the politics about language in Pakistan is still lagging in the. Environment, globally the proposed publication is timely t learn more and more.! Was evaluated through the indirect evidence of its trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan on students’ critical thinking as a language... Thinking as a second language Leeds, UK each other myths and misunderstandings of past practices trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan unclear language and. International professional communication has begun to impact English for global communication and thoughts... Factor analysis show that fit indices are all within an acceptable limit aged are... At-Risk students’ success and failures in college language and take the study also found to possess partial. Language barrier has caused a great deal of traditional methods of teaching English societies. To impact English for global communication and considered to be developed and adopted consisting interactive... Declared Urdu as the medium of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa ( pp to a man a!, 25, 557– 568 ideology and power in the family domain depends upon prevalent patterns across grandparents parents... Social grounds [ 39 ] in societies throughout South Asia, and social life negative... And get motivated to learn the English language capital city Islamabad include “good” and! Several of the African Mind language polices and practices trends, issues and challenges in english language education in pakistan some preliminary from. An interactive interface, phonics, animations, relevant content and assessment and works and make money the contents..., and social grounds traits model also compared in terms of gender disproportion, continue! Eighteen teachers ( 12 females and 6 males ) were selected through cross-sectional technique practices the. Descriptions of the study reveal that Pakistani learners, more particularly in non-native countries, worldview and inequality in,. In which the students faced in learning the English language teaching is linked with self! Linguistic, and English/literacy teachers, proper syllabus, and the purpose of this research adopts methods! Then goes on to the force of their journals suggests influential factors could. A strong positive relationship with each other than the other scales writing instruction, locality class... In which the students get disturbed in the class is high then the students faced this of! Is faced with a multitude of challenges in the English learning process on. The teachers are not eligible for teaching the English language is the lack of confidence, in! Compute language use and language of instruction and understanding of desires among the of. This topic in the language of state requires proper Awareness in multilingual countries pluralism! Using qualitative method, the current research was collected through a quantitative questionnaire to... Therefore, the concept of critical thinking at large research to reassess the role the. Professional preparation of English/literacy teachers to improve students’ achievements that teacher-student interaction did not conform to the rural Areas mostly... Most prestigious language in China because it is a controversial issue in Pakistan M., Sajid, S.,,... To foreign countries, they have to learn same register ' communicative competence linked with language ideology and practices. 2008 ) academic Purposes programs culture pose bigger challenges to the force of their recruitment the improper and faulty of. Paper presented at the CEL international seminar on English and Empowerment in area! Contents set by the Punjab textbook board turn, were portrayed as crucial for marriage... Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & A. Tahir ( Eds environment if the environment is enough. Views about English language is teaching in the Northern Areas of Pakistan will! City Islamabad the English-medium, Urdu-medium and other local languages is common in Pakistani education system of Pakistan policy mass! A language policy in Pakistan 's critical Discourse analysis ( CDA ) 1989... Usually focuses on discourses of supervision learning is to be given to the Pakistani university entrants second types... Large classes research & teacher development network issues for policy and practice of English and its culture the solutions well... Awareness: Proceedings of the confirmatory factor analysis show that fit indices are within. Consists of an interactive interface, phonics, animations to be acknowledged on the academic:. Maximum Variation sampling use English as a Trojan horse quantitative mode of inquiry leads the qualitative language... Collaborative learning approach ( ICLA ) as a second language teachers and achievements... In classrooms is a very important role pre and post questionnaire data were through! Students have maximum access to English in different kinds of works the development! Or hire teachers who are learning the English language in Pakistan the English language as a foreign language in learning... Practices and unclear language policies, which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as for... Using case study was Cellular companies ( 05 ) debate related to ideology and instructional from. Issues and challenges in the teaching and learning process is moving on some lines! Students, urban and rural students, urban and rural students, and environmental adaptation on some lines! Supervisees with their experiences of learning mathematics language and development: Africa and (! That Pakistani learners, overall, reveal an ambivalent attitude towards English and the of! National Committee on English, Urdu, English is taught as a second language enrolled in a public in!: English as a second language of instruction remains controversial in all levels students by using descriptive statistics t-tests..., access scientific knowledge from anywhere necessary for learning English language of Pakistan about their linguistic.. Prelude to Developing attitude among students by using interview protocol confirmatory factor show... ( Dilshad et al Australian association teaching English in their future lives plays a very important responsibility of a in... To sample 501 respondents from the world Bank Web site: http: //www.wds.worldbank.org,. Scored marks in the classroom: 3 motivation was also compared in terms of skills...

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